Irdc.ir: State and provincial associations are among the first political-civil organizations of non-governmental organizations of Iranian society on the eve of the victory of the Constitutional Revolution in 1906. In the early years of the victory of the Constitutional Revolution and in the transition from the old political system to the new situation, state and provincial associations in some states and provinces of the country played important and influential roles in managing and organizing political, social and security affairs. The State and Provincial Association of Azerbaijan, with its center in Tabriz, was probably the most prominent and well-known of all the state and provincial associations in all of Iran. Even before the formation of state and provincial associations in the constitution and the drafting and approval of its bylaws, In Azerbaijan and some other parts of the country, state and provincial associations had started their activity.
Khorasan, Azerbaijan, Fars and ports, and Kerman and Baluchistan were the four states of the country. While the provinces in these states were subject to the same state; In other parts of the country, there were other independent provinces that sometimes centered on one or more smaller neighboring provinces.
As a result of these administrative divisions, several state and provincial associations, which were established in different parts of the country during the years following the Constitutional Revolution, were considered as a subset of the hierarchy of the respective states and provinces. As a result of these administrative divisions, several state and provincial associations, which were established in different parts of the country during the years following the Constitutional Revolution, were considered as a subset of the hierarchy of the states and provinces.
At that time, state and provincial associations were established with fluctuations in many states and provinces of the country and their activities lasted for about 5-6 years. Of course, the qualitative and quantitative scope of activity of state and provincial associations in different regions of the country was different, and in the meantime the process of formation and activity of state and provincial associations, in different areas, from time to time was facing small and large tensions and political, social, cultural, economic and security problems. In addition, local political and administrative rulers and officials, from time to time, for various reasons, considered the formation and operation of state and provincial associations to be contrary to their sphere of authority and duties, and when they came into conflict with these associations, they were prevented from operating effectively.
In general, the establishment and operation of state and provincial associations played an effective role in the practice, development, formation and gradual expansion of political and civil participation, democracy and the democratic way of governing and politics in different parts of the country. With the conquest of Tehran and the beginning of the second period of constitutionalism, the establishment and continuation of the activity of state and provincial associations in many parts of the country was provided again. But in this new period, the formation and activity of state and provincial associations did not last long. With the growing political, social, economic and security crises in different parts of the country, in which the two colonial countries of Tsarist Russia and Britain played a major role in its expansion and continuation, from the early 1900s, in a process that was not very gradual, the activities of state and provincial associations in most of the states and provinces of Iran have stopped and become permanently closed.
Thus, with the continuing escalation of numerous political, social, economic, and security crises that accompanied the outbreak of World War I and its spread to parts of Iran, it was virtually impossible to re-establish state and provincial associations. From then until the end of the Qajar period, and throughout the reign of Reza Shah and the first two decades of the reign of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi on the early 1360s, in a long distance of almost 50 years! the names of state and provincial associations were no longer mentioned.
Following the protests and criticisms of the ulema and clerics under the leadership of Imam Khomeini, which were met with widespread support from various segments of the Iranian people, and the protests quickly spread to many cities and seminaries, the government of the time (of which Assadollah Alam was prime minister). That the ruling elite and the security and law enforcement forces were so taken by surprise that they did not expect that the criticism and protest against the American reforms, later known as the White Revolution, would become so widespread and uncontrollable. The inhuman attack of the Pahlavi regime commandos on Faizieh school in the first days of April, 1961 and finally the uprising of June 6, 1963, in line with the same irreconcilable protests and oppositions of clerics under the leadership of Imam Khomeini with the arbitrary and illegal actions of the Pahlavi government took action. This recent event became a turning point in the formation of the movement of Islamists and scholars under the leadership of Imam Khomeini against the oppressive, law-abiding and domineering Pahlavi government, and finally led to the formation, expansion and victory of the Islamic Revolution in February 1979.
In 1968, at the same time with the holding of city council elections, the issue of holding provincial and provincial council elections was once again discussed and discussed by government officials in the government and parliament, which did not reach a conclusion. It was only after about 2 years and in 1970 that this time, with the favorable opinion of the Shah himself, the so-called party government of Amir Abbas Hoveyda decided to hold elections and form state and provincial associations. In this new phase, the title of state and provincial associations was changed to "city and province associations".
Thus, after a hiatus of almost 59 years, elections for city and province associations (former state and provincial associations) were held across the country on September 4, 1970, with the decisive victory of the government candidates (represented by the Iran Novin Party) over the "People’s party” candidates. and a few other independent candidates ended. A total of 2473 members of city and province councils (former state and provincial associations) were elected, of which 1927 were members of the Iran Novin Party. 511 candidates from the "People’s Party” had applied to the mentioned associations, and the number of independents was about 35. However, the second and last elections of the city and province associations, in 1351, were held in the same atmosphere of the fake war between the two ruling parties of Iran Novin and the people’s Party, for which the majority of the Iranian people did not give any role and dignity. From then until the end of the Pahlavi period, we no longer see the activity of city and province associations in the country.