Irdc.ir: The reformation policies and the fundamentals of development in every country is based on its cultural and intellectual structures, and depends on the economic situation and the country's climate. The policy making process must be independent and with the purpose of real progress. The reformation policies in Pahlavi regime, both in Reza and Muhammadreza era, had non of these conditions. These two were only players of UK and US, and the reformation components and results were means to empower the regime.
Pahlavis, fought the religion they considered as their biggest enemy in three ways:
1) opposing clergies, as the most import religous symbols
2) opposing religious beliefs
3) opposing religious rituals
Here we mention some examples:
1. Unveiling and wearing uniforms
After oppressing the adversaries, Reza Khan was given the assignment to eliminate Islam from the lives of the nation, and replace the western culture. This mission, and his dependency were the things Imam paid attention to. The order of unveiling, and forcing men to dress like western people took place after his trip to Turkey.
In June 1935, he called the members of administration and asked them to force mem to wear "Shapo" hats,and women to unveil. He believed that it was difficult for people to put away their old habits, so he ordered the ministers and deputies to get together in Iran Club with their wives once a week. The minister of Culture was told to forbid Hijab in schools both for teachers and students, and prevent them from entering school with Hijab.
The law of Unveiling enforcement happened on 8 January 1936. Sadr-al-Ashraf mentioned in his diaries: "Women were not allowed in buses wearing Hijab, and troopers hit women wearing veils on the strreets violently. In some places, even if the head cover was not a veil, they took it away from the women violently and if they tried to scape, they followed them into their houses, seeked any sign of Hijab and set them on fire or took it away".
2. Prohibiting the mourning for Imam Hossein
The years leading to the days he gained power, Reza Shah was always alongside the people in mourning ceremonies for Imam Hossein. In Ashoura, he had brought a group of Qazaqs and some authorities to streets, barefoot, mourning for Imam Hossein. But when he became the king, he set up a plan to eliminate these religious ceremonies from people’s lives. First he moved Qazaqs' mourning ceremony from the streets to a an indoor area. The next year, the holidays of Muharram were reduced to 3 days and several days after the of the law of Unveiling, The law of prohibition of outdoor ceremonies was notified. In two years they also banned indoor mourning ceremonies, with the purpose of opposing superstitions. Step by step, there came a time when people were forced to attend street carnivals in Ashoura to spread happiness. Dancer and musicians celebrated in the streets.
3. Army of religion
In early 70's, Shah ordered the formation of an army of religion students to serve their military service. The main purpose was to cut the connections between people and clergies. They wanted to eliminate Islam from the society, bring in the American culture and values and stabalize capitalism in Iran. Imam sent an aggressive message: "They have planned to misuse Islam and cut the connections between people and clergies, they want to eliminate religion and take over all the resources of the country, and keep Muslims retarded".
Art is a means to recognize and recreate a culture, but the art of cinema in Pahlavi era, was controlled by the monarchs, and was put in use to eliminate religion from the society.
They made fun of every thing related to Islam in those movies. The focus was on meaningless and +18 scenes, with no attention to the story, the directing and...
Saeed Kangarani, Iranian movie star in those days, said: "When a system wants to enter corruption to a culture based on a doctrine, the cinema will be like what it was in the movie "the Fountain": showing a naked woman. Unexpected, and so early for Iranian cinema. There were people entering prostitutes into movies. For example, when Mr. Hoveyda attended the Actors and Producers Syndicate, they did everything he asked, cause they knew the order was to be ordered. The corruption of cinema, spread in the other parts of the society and sacrificed some ordinary people. The authorities sent star-spangled girls for Arab Shaikhs. This was how the monarchs were trying to get to an American lifestyle.
5. Self destruction culture
Even Taghizadeh himself called his idea of "being westernized from head to toe" a mistake, but Pahlavis always remained loyal to performing it. Reza Shah said explicitly:”we have to become westernized in form and traditions". The mission was to fight people’s sense of belonging through humiliation of Iranian-Islamic culture, and exaggerating the view of the West in their minds in a good way. Ayatollah Khamenei said that during the times of Monarchy, he met an important authority and he asked him "what are you criticizing? We are sitting like a lord and other countries are working for us, sending us goods. Is it a bad thing?" This was the way they thought.
6. Spreading corruption systematically
Depravity and drug addiction rates were going high and they had built towns as a center of depravity, with the purpose of ruining native religious culture. They had built a place called "Shahr-e-no" with thousands of prostitutes which 70-80% of them had many kinds of illnesses, and the illegitimate childs born in those places where taken to orphanage. These towns and centers were both designed for the rich and the poor. There were places like "Shokoufeh-No" cabaret, to host authorities and important people, and all over the town, there were cheap discos to attract poor, unemployed youth to take them down with drugs and sexual perversion.
They also had a direct role in drug distribution system, especially Heroin. The wosrs reputation belonged to Ashraf Pahlavi, the super drug smuggler. Fardoost has written: "She was a famous international smuggler, undoubtedly a member of American Mafia. She always carried Heroin in her suitcase and no one dared to even control it.
7. Shiraz art ceremony
Pahlavis had set a slough, to take down Iranian culture, called"The Great Civilization ". Shiraz art ceremony, held in the last years of the monarchy, was a sign of it.
Then British ambassador explain the ceremony:"In 1977, this ceremony has gone way further that the previous one in insulting Iranian values. Someone told me about an street theater about horrible consequences of foreign occupation. The group had rent a shop in a crowded street. The show happened inside and outside the shop, and they recreated a rape scene, fully done, without simulation. At the end of the show, another man took off his trousers and put a gun on his back, pretending to suicide. I talked about the show with Shah, and I told him that if such thing happened in Vinchester, England, non of the performers would survive. Shah laughed a bit and said nothing".
Irdc news agency