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Leaving these events behind, we come to the eventful year of 1964 and the issue of capitulation, the re-arrest and deportation of Haj Agha Ruhollah, which overshadowed the events after this year and the way of struggle.
Publish Date : 08:25 - 2021 November 08 Leaving these events behind, we come to the eventful year of 1964 and the issue of capitulation, the re-arrest and deportation of Haj Agha Ruhollah, which overshadowed the events after this year and the way of struggle.

Thus, we need to address this issue and draw that space as well. Capitulation is a treaty or unilateral contract by which a sovereign state relinquishes jurisdiction within its borders over the subjects of a foreign state. As a result, the foreign subjects are immune, for most civil and criminal purposes, from actions by courts and other governmental institutions in the state that makes the capitulation. In the political literature, capitulation is defined differently, because western countries believe that Third World countries are savages. Therefore, they want protection against savagery. In Iran, the historical roots of this issue date back to 1600 AD, during the Safavid and Shah Abbas eras. During the reign of Shah Abbas, the Shirley brothers came to Iran for a series of trade exchanges. They demanded some freedom of action for their own religious services, and Shah Abbas granted this right beyond what they wanted. So the Shirley brothers first got this right for the British, and then the French asked for the same right. During the Qajar period, this issue developed and its peak became obvious in the contract of 1919. 

During the Qajar period, almost all foreign states had this right. Thus, Iran had no involvement in the entry of foreign nationals, and the Russian and British embassies, France and Germany, were in fact expanded like the shrine of the Imams. The criminals took refuge inside the embassy and were provided with security. Thus, the police and another official could not take them out of the embassy, ​​arrest them and hand them over to the authorities. With the fall of the Qajar dynasty and the coming to power of Reza Shah, in 1928, he submitted a bill to the parliament, and after its approval, the right of consular or capitulation in Iran for foreign citizens was banned and canceled. But during the reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, who returned to power after the American coup d'état on August 19, 1953, this issue changed. However, US aid to Mohammad Reza to restore the throne put an end to British influence and colonization; But in return, it paved the way for the United States to enter the Iranian scene. Iran had a special strategic position in the Middle East. For this reason, as well as having oil resources and national wealth, was coveted by the United States. The formation of SAVAK paved the way for more US entry into Iran, and after that, American forces became actively present. Over time, Iran became an important base for American interests. In order to be present in Iran and to prevent the Marxist revolutions that took place in the Third World countries, the United States sought to implement several programs in Iran. These included land reform, state and provincial associations, and the White Revolution, all of which were dictated by the United States. At every stage of its actions and plans, the United States faced opposition from Imam Khomeini. Thus, for the immunity of all their citizens, both military and civilian, and their ordinary citizens, they asked the Shah to grant them capitulation or consular jurisdiction. But this trend coincided with the new atmosphere of struggle of the Islamic movement and the strong stance of Haj Agha Ruhollah. In April 1964, Imam, who had been arrested and imprisoned for giving a speech on June 4, 1963, was released and returned to Qom. This year was a special year for the return of the Imam to Qom; Because the freedom of the Imam meant a victory for the movement and defeat and a retreat for the Shah. I mentioned earlier that the Shah's plan was to execute the Imam, but due to the support given to the Imam, the Shah reversed his decision, but the Imam was still kept in Tehran. The news of the Imam's release and their return to Qom was considered as a surprising and great news and caused celebration and joy. In Qom, the Imam's disciples were preparing for a great celebration, which they held in Faizieh, where they discussed issues of struggle and movement. It was a celebration held to strengthen the struggle and the fighting forces. In this process, two theories were proposed between the Imam's students and his followers: The first theory was to pay attention to the authority of the Imam, because it was the authority that saved him from death. Because the Imam in Ashura in 1963 depicted the overthrow of the regime. This theory received more attention. Among the students and followers of Imam: Montazeri, Meshkini, Rabbani Shirazi, Hashemi Rafsanjani and others followed this theory. Of course, it goes without saying that both groups were aware of and acknowledged the authority of the Imam and even considered him the undisputed authority. Under these circumstances, the cabinet of Alam fell and Hassan Ali Mansour was appointed to form the cabinet. There are different opinions about him. The majority considered Mansour a figure of the United States. And politically, in 1343, American agents, including technocrats, were in the country, and with the appointment of Hassan Ali Mansour as Prime Minister, the government changed from pro-British to pro-American. For this reason, there was a softening in the political space of the country and an of the country and a space of freedom was created. This provided an opportunity for militant groups to reconsider, reorganize, and use past experiences more cautiously. Of course, not everyone did so, and due to the negligence of some people from the open air, SAVAK obtained their information until in November 4,1964, the issue of granting legal immunity to American experts or the capitulation was raised, which was presented to the parliament by Mansour. With the approval of this bill, the Imam gave a sharp speech. After that, the behavior of the regime changed and it was no longer like before to give people a chance to come to the streets and demonstrate. The next morning, the day after the Imam's speech, the regime surrounded his house and, after arresting him, transferred him directly to Tehran, from where he was deported to a military airport by a C-130 military plane to Turkey. The next day, SAVAK released a statement on radio and television. This was the content of the text:"Due to the behavior of Haj Agha Ruhollah Mousavi Khomeini in acting against the security of the country, he was arrested and deported to Turkey." In other words, the regime did not act like the 6th of june to arrest the Imam and bring him to Tehran and imprison him, this time deported him completely.

Source: Memoirs of Mohammad Hashemi

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