Although the United States delisted Iraq from the state sponsors of terrorism in 1982(9), European and American companies(10) and administrations were already helping Saddam long before that(11). This move was taken despite the fact that the US government was already convinced that Iraq was involved in terrorism. Iraq received 200 million dollars’ worth of arms from America between 1983 to 1990(12); all this for the purpose of defeating Iran.
Apart from US military aid to Iraq, there were also economic aids, since Iraqi oil exports had almost come to a halt, as had that of Iran's. While Iran was under US and European sanctions, which increased the volatility of Iran’s oil exports(13), Iraqi oil tankers were escorted under the American flag, by the American Navy past the Persian Gulf (14). Moreover, a five billion dollars(15) US loan was granted to Saddam in his war with Iran, in addition to over 680 million dollars for building oil pipes(16) and later one billion dollars of aid (17); all of which were spent on Iraqi military buildup. America's Central Intelligence Agency put a cover before Congress for a five billion dollar loan granted to Saddam by the Atlanta branch of Italian Lavoro Bank(18). All this support and assistance to Saddam ignored the fact that Saddam was financing terrorist organizations like MEK. The US credits offered to Saddam made Iraq the third-largest recipient of US assistance(19). As Rodney Castledean put it in 2011:
"During the Iran-Iraq War there is no question about it; the United States was an ally of Iraq, and gave Saddam Hussein several different kinds of aid to help him win the war.(20)”
Many American and European companies(21) were helping Saddam to build up its Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) programs from 1975 onward, as well as rockets and conventional weapons. According to leaked reports, Iraq’s WMD program consisted of nuclear(22), chemical and biological weapons(23) of mass destruction(24). These aids were apart from governmental aids. Later it was disclosed that American standards(25) were used in production of Iraqi biological weapons(26). The Atlanta-based Center for Disease Control (CDC) sent 14 agents "with biological warfare significance" to Iraq between 1985 and 1989(27).
France and Britain both had sold some arms to Iraq back in the 1960s, but between 1974 and 1980, Iraq started to purchase arms from different western countries. It started to acquire helicopters, antitank missiles, and high performance Mirage jet fighters from France. Other aids that the US administration offered to Saddam include counter-insurgency training, operational intelligence on the battlefield and weapons(28).
The interesting fact is that the same Ronald Rumsfeld(29) who took a hawkish attitude toward Iraq and favored an attack post 9/11, was the person who went to Baghdad as Reagan’s emissary(30) for a handshake with Saddam(31). This move was taken in December 1983 and again in March 1984 because the "Reagan administration was afraid Iraq might actually lose” the war to Iran, according to US ambassador Peter W. Galbraith(32).
shaking Hands: Iraqi President Saddam Hussein greeets Donald Rumsfeld, then special envoy of President Ronald Reagan, in Baghdad on December 20, 1983
A month before this historic handshake, in November 1983, Iraq had already started to use chemical weapons against Iran and the US administration was well aware of that(33). According to the Geneva Protocol of 1925, which the Americans had ratified in 1975, states undertake that they will not use chemical weapons and agree they 'will exert every effort to induce other States' to do the same(34). Charles A. Duelfer(35) said in an interview:
"During the Iran-Iraq war, Saddam used 101,000 chemical munitions, which was no secret. The U.S. once in a while would peep and say chemical weapons were bad, but at the same time we were giving Saddam intelligence that laid out where Iranian troops were massing. Then he would gas the living daylights out of them.(36)”
In reference to the Geneva protocol of 1925, Iran filed a United Nations draft resolution to condemn Saddam’s use of chemical weapons against Iran, but the US lobbied its allies at the UN to vote for a "no decision” stance against this resolution(37). Three years later, in 1988, Saddam also used chemical weapons against his own people, killing 5,000 innocent civilians, women and children in the Iraqi town of Halabja. As it turned out later, the US used to monitor the Iraqi army's messages on the use of chemicals in Halabja(38). The Reagan administration sought to obscure responsibility of this attack by falsely accusing Iran of being responsible(39). These accusations were levied while Iran had never developed or used such kind of weapons during this war or later on.
saddam's chemical attack on Halabja,Ireq
Below is a brief outline on twenty different aids Saddam recieved from the United States on his war against Iran:
A) Political support
1. US removed Iraq from list of State Sponsors of Terrorism; 1982.
2. US and its allies supported "no decision" at UN on Iraq’s use of chemical weapons; 1984.
3. Bush signed NSD 26 to ensure the security of Iraq; 1989.
B) Military Support
4. $1.5 billion worth of Pathogenic, toxigenic and other biological research materials were exported to Iraq; 1985-89.
5. US delivered 200 million dollars’ worth of arms; 1983-90.
6. CIA secretly directed armaments and hi-tech components to Iraq; 1985-90.
7. CIA secretly encouraged rogue arms dealers and private military companies to funnel arm to Iraq; 1985-90.
8. US based company, Alcolac International exported mustard gas to Iraq; 1987-88.
9. Almost 150 foreign companies supported Saddam Hussein's WMD program; 1975-91.
10. 60 officers of the Defense Intelligence Agency provided logistic information to Iraq; 1987- 88.
11. US navy escorted Iraqi oil tankers while Iraq was targeting Iranian tankers; 1987-88.
12. Saddam's elite troops were trained in US; 1980s.
13. Iraqi helicopter pilots received training in the United States; 1980s.
14. The United States assisted Iraq through a military aid program known as "Bear Spares"; 1980s.
C) US direct attack on Iran while in war with Saddam
15. US directly attacked Iran by hitting Iran’s oil platforms; 1987.
16. US directly attacked Iran’s navy in unproportioned and unreasonable war; 1988.
17. US shot down Iranian civilian airliner in the Iranian territory; 1988.
D) Blaming Iran for Iraqi attack on Halabja
18. US blamed Iran for Iraqi attack on USS Stark; 1987.
E) Logistic Support
19. US spied on Iran with aircraft during operation Eager Glacier and delivered this information to Iraq; 1987-88.
D) Economic Support
20. US funneled $5 billion of American tax payers money to Iraq; 1985-89.
*Fatemeh Mohammadi has a M.A. in Public Relations and is well experienced in Iranian history. She also has articles in comparative history which are published by Tasnim News Agency and Cultural Heritage News Agency